The Fair and Accurate Credit Transaction Act of 2003 (the FACT Act) directed several federal agencies to conduct studies related to the credit reporting industry. A primary concern was the accuracy and fairness of the credit reporting and scoring systems. In this article, Federal Reserve System Board economists report on a study in which they examined various issues related to credit scoring, including how credit scoring has affected the availability and affordability of credit. In a responding commentary, Calvin Bradford notes flaws and deficiencies in the Federal Reserve System study.