Electronic medical records (EMRs) have tremendous potential to lower consumer medical costs and improve quality, yet their use in the United States remains extremely low. We explain the reasons for this market failure and then document the strikingly parallel problems in the lending market one hundred years ago. We investigate how the evolution of credit bureaus helped address market limitations in lending, and ask whether similar entities—what we call health information bureaus—might overcome similar problems in EMR adoption and interconnection.