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Keywords:

  • glia;
  • trigeminal;
  • central sensitization

Abstract

Recent studies have indicated that trigeminal neurons exhibit central sensitization, an increase in the excitability of neurons within the central nervous system to the extent that a normally innocuous stimulus begins to produce pain after inflammation or injury, and that glial activities play a vital role in this central sensitization. The involvement of glial cells in trigeminal central sensitization contains multiple mechanisms, including interaction with glutamatergic and purinergic receptors. A better understanding of the trigeminal central sensitization mediated by glial cells will help to find potential therapeutic targets and lead to developing new analgesics for orofacial-specific pain with higher efficiency and fewer side-effects.