• 1
    Kim N, Azadzoi KM, Goldstein I, Saenz de Tejada I. A nitric oxide-like factor mediates nonadrenergic-noncholinergic neurogenic relaxation of penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. J Clin Invest 1991; 88: 1128.
  • 2
    Kendirci M, Hellstrom WJ. Role of Endothelium in Erectile Function and Dysfunction. In: AirdWC, editor. Endothelial Biomedicine: A Comprehensive Reference. Cambridge , New York : Cambridge University Press; 2007. p 15418.
  • 3
    Bacon C, Mittleman M, Kawachi I, Giovannucci E, Glasser D, Rimm E. A prospective study of risk factors for erectile dysfunction. J Urol 2006; 176: 21721.
  • 4
    Esposito K, Giugliano F, Di Palo C, Giugliano G, Marfella R, D'Andrea F, et al. Effect of lifestyle changes on erectile dysfunction in obese men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 297884.
  • 5
    Kendirci M, Tanriverdi O, Trost L, Hellstrom WJ. Management of sildenafil treatment failures. Curr Opin Urol 2006; 16: 44959.
  • 6
    Sullivan ME, Keoghane SR, Miller MA. Vascular risk factors and erectile dysfunction. BJU Int 2001; 87: 83845.
  • 7
    Feldman HA, Johannes CB, Derby CA, Kleinman KP, Mohr BA, Araujo AB, et al. Erectile dysfunction and coronary risk factors: prospective results from the Massachusetts male aging study. Prev Med 2000; 30: 32838.
  • 8
    Mannino DM, Klevens RM, Flanders WD. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor for impotence? Am J Epidemiol 1994; 140: 10038.
  • 9
    El-sakka AI. Characteristics of erectile dysfunction in Saudi patients. Int J Impot Res 2004; 16: 1320.
  • 10
    Mirone V, Imbimbo C, Bortolotti A, Di Cintio E, Colli E, Landoni M, et al. Cigarette smoking as risk factor for erectile dysfunction: results from an Italian epidemiological study. Eur Urol 2002; 41: 2947.
  • 11
    Rosen MP, Greenfield AJ, Walker TG, Grant P, Dubrow J, Bettmann MA, et al. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in the hypogastric-cavernous arterial bed of men with arteriogenic impotence. J Urol 1991; 145: 75963.
  • 12
    Polsky J, Aronson K, Heaton J, Adams M. Smoking and other lifestyle factors in relation to erectile dysfunction. BJU Int 2005; 96: 13559.
  • 13
    Kupelian V, Link C, McKinlay J. Association between smoking, passive smoking, and erectile dysfunction: results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey. Eur Urol 2007; 52: 41622.
  • 14
    McVary KT, Carrier S, Wessells H. Subcommittee on Smoking and Erectile Dysfunction Socioeconomic Committee, Sexual Medicine Society of North America. Smoking and erectile dysfunction: evidence based analysis. J Urol 2001; 166: 162432.
  • 15
    Hirshkowitz M, Karacan I, Arcasoy MO, Acik G, Narter EM, Williams RL. Prevalence of sleep apnea in men with erectile dysfunction. Urology 1990; 36: 2324.
  • 16
    Guay AT, Perez JB, Heatley GJ. Cessation of smoking rapidly decreases erectile dysfunction. Endocr Pract 1998; 4: 236.
  • 17
    Jacobs MC, Lenders JW, Kapma JA, Smits P, Thien T. Effect of chronic smoking on endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in humans. Clin Sci (Lond) 1993; 85: 515.
  • 18
    Juenemann KP, Lue TF, Luo JA, Benowitz NL, Abozeid M, Tanagho EA. The effect of cigarette smoking on penile erection. J Urol 1987; 138: 43841.
  • 19
    Mersdorf A, Goldsmith PC, Diederichs W, Padula CA, Lue TF, Fishman IJ, et al. Ultrastructural changes in impotent penile tissue: a comparison of 65 patients. J Urol 1991; 145: 74958.
  • 20
    Jorge PA, Ozaki MR, Almeida EA. Endothelial dysfunction in coronary vessels and thoracic aorta of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1995; 22: 4103.
  • 21
    Pittilo RM, Mackie IJ, Rowles PM, Machin SJ, Woolf N. Effects of cigarette smoking on the ultrastructure of rat thoracic aorta and its ability to produce prostacyclin. Thromb Haemost 1982; 48: 1736.
  • 22
    Powell JT. Vascular damage from smoking: disease mechanisms at the arterial wall. Vasc Med 1998; 3: 218.
  • 23
    Higman DJ, Strachan AM, Buttery L, Hicks RC, Springall DR, Greenhalgh RM, et al. Smoking impairs the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in saphenous vein. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996; 16: 54652.
  • 24
    Murohara T, Kugiyama K, Ohgushi M, Sugiyama S, Yasue H. Cigarette smoke extract contracts isolated porcine coronary arteries by superoxide anion-mediated degradation of EDRF. Am J Physiol 1994; 266: H87480.
  • 25
    Derby CA, Mohr BA, Goldstein I, Feldman HA, Johannes CB, McKinlay JB. Modifiable risk factors and erectile dysfunction: can lifestyle changes modify risk? Urology 2000; 56: 3026.
  • 26
    Rosen RC, Fisher WA, Eardley I, Niederberger C, Nadel A, Sand M. Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) Study. The multinational Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) study: I. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and related health concerns in the general population. Curr Med Res Opin 2004; 20: 60717.
  • 27
    Seftel AD, Sun P, Swindle R. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and depression in men with erectile dysfunction. J Urol 2004; 171: 23415.
  • 28
    Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, Krane RJ, McKinlay JB. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol 1994; 151: 5461.
  • 29
    Wei M, Macera CA, Davis DR, Hornung CA, Nankin HR, Blair SN. Total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol as important predictors of erectile dysfunction. Am J Epidemiol 1994; 140: 9307.
  • 30
    Chung WS, Sohn JH, Park YY. Is obesity an underlying factor in erectile dysfunction? Eur Urol 1999; 36: 6870.
  • 31
    Solomon H, Man J, Wierzbicki AS, O'Brien T, Jackson G. Erectile dysfunction: cardiovascular risk and the role of the cardiologist. Int J Clin Pract 2003; 57: 969.
  • 32
    Fung MM, Bettencourt R, Barrett-Connor E. Heart disease risk factors predict erectile dysfunction 25 years later: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 43: 140511.
  • 33
    Roumeguere T, Wespes E, Carpentier Y, Hoffmann P, Schulman CC. Erectile dysfunction is associated with a high prevalence of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease risk. Eur Urol 2003; 44: 3559.
  • 34
    Nikoobakht M, Pourkasmaee M, Nasseh H. The Relationship between Lipid Profile and Erectile Dysfunction. Urol J 2005; 2: 404.
  • 35
    Bacon CG, Mittleman MA, Kawachi I, Giovannucci E, Glasser DB, Rimm EB. Sexual function in men older than 50 years of age: results from the health professionals follow-up study. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 1618.
  • 36
    Blanker MH, Bohnen AM, Groeneveld FP, Bernsen RM, Prins A, Thomas S, et al. Correlates for erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in older Dutch men: a community-based study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 43642.
  • 37
    Kugiyama K, Kerns SA, Morrisett JD, Roberts R, Henry PD. Impairment of endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation by lysolecithin in modified low-density lipoproteins. Nature 1990; 344: 1602.
  • 38
    Rosenfeld ME. Oxidized LDL affects multiple atherogenic cellular responses. Circulation 1991; 83: 213740.
  • 39
    Rubbo H, Trostchansky A, Botti H, Batthyany C. Interactions of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite with low-density lipoprotein. Biol Chem 2002; 383: 54752.
  • 40
    Kim SC. Hyperlipidemia and erectile dysfunction. Asian J Androl 2000; 2: 1616.
  • 41
    Kim SC, Kim IK, Seo KK, Baek KJ, Lee MY. Involvement of superoxide radical in the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Urol Res 1997; 25: 3416.
  • 42
    Liao L, Aw TY, Kvietys PR, Granger DN. Oxidized LDL-induced microvascular dysfunction. Dependence on oxidation procedure. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995; 15: 230511.
  • 43
    Saenz de Tejada I, Goldstein I, Azadzoi K, Krane RJ, Cohen RA. Impaired neurogenic and endothelium-mediated relaxation of penile smooth muscle from diabetic men with impotence. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 102530.
  • 44
    Gholami SS, Rogers R, Chang J, Ho HC, Grazziottin T, Lin CS, et al. The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor and adeno-associated virus mediated brain derived neurotrophic factor on neurogenic and vasculogenic erectile dysfunction induced by hyperlipidemia. J Urol 2003; 169: 157781.
  • 45
    Henry GD, Byrne R, Hunyh TT, Abraham V, Annex BH, Hagen PO, et al. Intracavernosal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor protects endothelial dependent corpora cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit: a preliminary study. Int J Impot Res 2000; 12: 3349.
  • 46
    Junemann K P, Aufenanger J, Konrad T, Pill J, Berle B, Persson-Junemann C, et al. The effect of impaired lipid metabolism on the smooth muscle cells of rabbits. Urol Res 1991; 19: 2715.
  • 47
    Atahan O, Kayigil O, Metin A. Electrical activity of corpus cavernosum in vasculogenic and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1997; 31: 54954.
  • 48
    Saltzman EA, Guay AT, Jacobson J. Improvement in erectile function in men with organic erectile dysfunction by correction of elevated cholesterol levels: a clinical observation. J Urol 2004; 172: 2558.
  • 49
    Miller NS, Gold MS. The human sexual response and alcohol and drugs. J Subst Abuse Treat 1988; 5: 1717.
  • 50
    Paick JS, Yang JH, Kim SW, Ku JH. Severity of erectile dysfunction in married impotent patients: interrelationship with anthropometry, hormones, metabolic profiles and lifestyle. Int J Urol 2007; 14: 4853.
  • 51
    Cheng JY, Ng EM, Chen RY, Ko JS. Alcohol consumption and erectile dysfunction: meta-analysis of population-based studies. Int J Impot Res 2007; 19: 34352.
  • 52
    Nicolosi A, Moreira E, Villa M, Glasser D. A population study of the association between sexual function, sexual satisfaction and depressive symptoms in men. J Affect Disord 2004; 82: 23543.
  • 53
    Cheng JY, Ng EM, Ko JS, Chen RY. Physical activity and erectile dysfunction: meta-analysis of population-based studies. Int J Impot Res 2007; 19: 24552.
  • 54
    Kendirci M, Nowfar S, Hellstrom WJ. The impact of vascular risk factors on erectile function. Drugs Today (Barc) 2005; 41: 6574.
  • 55
    Khan MA, Morgan RJ, Mikhailidis DP. The choice of antihypertensive drugs in patients with erectile dysfunction. Curr Med Res Opin 2002; 18: 1037.