The concept of muscle rehabilitation after nerve injury is not a novel idea and is practiced in many branches of medicine, including urology. Bladder rehabilitation after spinal cord injury is universally practiced. The erectile dysfunction (ED) experienced after radical prostatectomy (RP) is increasingly recognized as being primarily neurogenic followed by secondary penile smooth muscle (SM) changes. There is unfortunately no standard approach to penile rehabilitation after RP because controlled prospective human studies are not available. This article reviews the epidemiology, experimental pathophysiological models, rationale for penile rehabilitation, and currently published rehabilitation strategies.