Attitudes Toward Nurse Practitioners: Influence of Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Education and Income


  • The research reported was supported by the Center for Research on Women and Newboms (CROWN), Lancaster, PA, and the Millersville University Faculty Grants Committee. The authors gratefully acknowledge their financial support.

concerning this article should be sent to Carol Y. Phillips, Millersville University, P.O. Box 1002, Millersville, PA 17551-0302.


Survey research was undertaken to measure relationships between gender, age, ethnicity, education, income level, and an individual's attitude toward using a nurse practitioner (NP) for health care. Pender's Health Promotion Model provided the theoretical basis for the research initiative and instrument design. Following initial pilot work, 238 individuals were surveyed. While no significant differences on the basis of gender and race were found, high school graduates demonstrated significantly more positive attitudes toward NPs than non-high school graduates, and older subjects and those with lower incomes were less positively inclined to use NP services. These findings have implications for the marketing of NP services, NP education, and public education, and should be used as a basis for additional research in this area.