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    An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1st Annual Cyber Crime and Digital Forensics Conference in Spokane, WA (October 2006). The authors would like to thank the state of Florida, Office of the Attorney General, for their financial support of this study. We also thank Kevin Beaver, Carter Hay, Dan Mears, and Alex Piquero for their helpful suggestions on an earlier draft. Direct correspondence to Kristy Holtfreter, College of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Florida State University, 634 W. Call St., Tallahassee, FL 32306-1127.


Recent research has used both routine activity/lifestyle frameworks and self-control theory to explain victimization. Thus far, combined tests of these theories have focused on offending populations and street crime victimization. Whether these frameworks also explain exposure to and likelihood of nonviolent victimization (e.g., fraud) in general-population samples remains an open empirical question. Building on prior work, we assess the independent effects of routine consumer activities (i.e., remote purchasing) and low self-control on the likelihood of fraud targeting and victimization. Using a representative sample of 922 adults from a statewide survey in Florida, the results confirm our expectation that remote-purchasing activities increase consumers' risk of being targeted for fraud. Low self-control has no effect on whether consumers are targeted, but it does significantly increase the likelihood of fraud victimization.