Mass imprisonment and racial disparities in childhood behavioral problems


  • This research was funded by a Russell Sage Foundation Presidential Authority Award, a University of Minnesota Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship, a Harry Frank Guggenheim Dissertation Fellowship, and a postdoctoral fellowship from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health & Society Scholars Program. We are grateful to Audrey Nguyen and Alyssa Whitby Chamberlain for research assistance as well as to Marie Gottschalk and the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on an earlier version of this article.

Sara Wakefield, Department of Criminology, Law & Society and Sociology, University of California, Irvine, 3381 Social Ecology II, Irvine, CA 92617 (e-mail:; Christopher Wildeman, Yale University, Department of Sociology, PO Box 208265, New Haven, CT 06520 (email: