In this study, information on food preferences and intake frequencies of 70 Vietnamese children was gathered by means of a questionnaire. The purpose was to compare the dietary habits of children who had been in the U.S. for more than one year with those of children arriving within the past year (1981). The results showed that children less than six years old who came to California more than one year ago consumed green leafy vegetables less frequently (p < 0.01) and vitamin supplements more frequently (p < 0.01) than those who came here recently. In the older groups (> 6yrs), those who have been resident in the U.S. for more than one year consumed peanut butter and sweets (ice cream, pies, milkshakes) more frequently than those who had just arrived (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Older children (age > 6 yrs) who had been in the U.S. longer preferred American foods more than those who had just come (p < 0.01). The majority of all children ate fruits as snacks. The consumption of rice, eggs, cheese, milk, meats and fruit juice was not significantly different in any of the four groups. This study also revealed a great need of nutrition education for the Vietnamese refugee mothers. Recommendations for planning nutrition education for this population are provided.