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ABSTRACT: Montana's 1991 school “tobacco referendum,” authorized by the state legislature and approved by about 60% of approximately 50,000 students voting in grades 7–12, represents an innovative attempt to include youth in decisions regarding tobacco and health and to decisively demonstrate peer disapproval of tobacco use. The referendum asked students whether tobacco sellers should voluntarily refuse to sell cigarettes and tobacco to persons younger than age 18. Montana is one of five states which allow tobacco sales to minors but has one of the nation's lowest youth smoking rates. The statewide referendum follows the successful example of the Bozeman, Montana, school district's 1990 tobacco referendum, in which 80% of the 2,200 grade 7–12 students and staff voted to make their schools “tobacco-free.”