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ABSTRACT: To review the state of research on the association between sleep among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating sleep, school performance, and cognitive and achievement tests. Tables with brief descriptions of each study's research methods and outcomes are included. Research reveals a high prevalence among school-aged children of suboptimal amounts of sleep and poor sleep quality. Research demonstrates that suboptimal sleep affects how well students are able to learn and how it may adversely affect school performance. Recommendations for further research are discussed.