• 1
    Krug EG, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, eds. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
  • 2
    National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Ten Leading Causes of Death, United States. Available at: Accessed February 25, 2010.
  • 3
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Violence Prevention: Youth Violence. Available at: Accessed April 17, 2009.
  • 4
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School associated student homicides-United States, 1992–2006. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57:3336.
  • 5
    National Center for Educational Statistics. Indicators of school crime and safety: 2007. Executive summary. Available at: Accessed August 27, 2008.
  • 6
    Eaton DK, Kahn L, Kinchen S, et al. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2007. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008; 57:1131.
  • 7
    Brown BV, Bzostek S. Violence in the lives of children. Available at: Accessed May 11, 2006.
  • 8
    Brown SL, Birch DA, Kancherla V. Bullying perspectives: experiences, attitudes, and recommendations of 9- to 13-year-olds attending health education centers in the United States. J Sch Health. 2005;75:384392.
  • 9
    Dake JA, Price JH, Telljohann SK. The nature and extent of bullying at school. J Sch Health. 2003;73:173180.
  • 10
    Glew GM, Fan MY, Katon W., Rivara FP. Bullying and school safety. J Pediatr. 2008;152:123128.
  • 11
    Juvonen J, Graham S, Schuster MA. Bullying among young adolescents: the strong, the weak, and the troubled. Pediatrics. 2003;112:12311237.
  • 12
    Stockdale MS, Hangaduambo S, Duys D, Larson K, Sarvela PD. Rural elementary students', parents', and teachers' perceptions of bullying. Am J Health Behav. 2002;26:266277.
  • 13
    Arseneault L, Walsh E, Trzesniewski K, Newcombe R, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. Bullying victimization uniquely contributes to adjustment problems in young children: a nationally representative cohort study. Pediatrics. 2006;118:130138.
  • 14
    Fekkes M, Pijpers FI, Fredriks AM, Vogels T, Verloove-Vanhorick SP. Do bullied children get ill, or do ill children get bullied? A prospective cohort study on the relationship between bullying and health-related symptoms. Pediatrics. 2006;117:15681574.
  • 15
    Perren S, Alsaker FD. Social behavior and peer relationships of victims, bully-victims, and bullies in kindergarten. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006;47:4557.
  • 16
    Kumpulainen K. Psychiatric conditions associated with bullying. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2008;20:121132.
  • 17
    Glew GM, Fan MY, Katon W, Rivara FP, Kernic MA. Bullying, psychological adjustment, and academic performance in elementary school. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159: 10261031.
  • 18
    Juvonen J, Nishina A, Graham S. Peer harassment, psychological adjustment, and school functioning in early adolescence. J Educ Psychol. 2000;92:349359.
  • 19
    Nishina A, Juvonen J, Wirkow MR. Stick and stones may break my bones, but names will make me feel sick: the psychological, somatic, and scholastic consequences of peer harassment. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2005;34:3748.
  • 20
    Bingenheimer JB, Brennan RT, Earls FJ. Firearm exposure and serious violent behavior. Science. 2005;308:13231326.
  • 21
    Patternson G, Dishion T, Yoeger K. Adolescent growth in new forms of problems behaviors; macro and micro peer dynamics. Prevention Science. 2000;1:313.
  • 22
    Kochenderfer BJ, Ladd GW. Peer victimization: cause or consequence of school maladjustment? Child Dev. 1996;67: 13051317.
  • 23
    Youngblade LM, Theokas C, Schulenberg J, Curry L, Huang IC, Novak M. Risk and promotive factors in families, schools, and communities: a contextual model of positive youth development in adolescence. Pediatrics. 2007;119:S47S53.
  • 24
    Schwartz D, Gorman AH. Community violence exposure and children's academic functioning. J Educ Psychol. 2003;95: 163173.
  • 25
    Ladd GW, Birch SH, Buhs ES. Children's social and scholastic lives in kindergarten: related spheres of influence? Child Dev. 1999;70:13731400.
  • 26
    Eisenberg ME, Neumark-Sztainer D, Perry CL. Peer harassment, school connectedness, and academic achievement. J School Health. 2003;73:311316.
  • 27
    Ladd GW, Kochenderfer BJ, Coleman CC. Classroom peer acceptance friendship, and victimization: distinct relational systems that contribute to children's school adjustment? Child Dev. 1997;68:11811197.
  • 28
    Brookmeyer KA, Fanti KA, Henrich CC. Schools, parents, and youth: a multilevel, ecological analysis. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2006;35:504514.
  • 29
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to prevention unintentional injuries and violence. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001;50:174.
  • 30
    Jagers RJ, Syndor K, Mouttapa M, Flay BR. Protective factors associated with preadolescent violence: preliminary work on a cultural model. Am J Commun Psychol. 2007;40:138245.
  • 31
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using environmental design to prevent youth violence. Available at: Accessed August 28, 2008.
  • 32
    Culley MR, Conkling M, Emshoff J, Blakely C, Gorman D. Environmental and contextual influences on school violence and its prevention. J Prim Prev. 2006;27:217227.
  • 33
    Mair JS, Mair M. Violence prevention and control through environmental design. Annu Rev Publ Health. 2003;24: 209225.
  • 34
    Anderson M, Kaufman J, Simon TR, et al. School-associated deaths in the United States, 1994–1999. JAMA. 2001;286: 26952702.
  • 35
    Bowes D, Marquis M, Holoway P, Isaac W. Process evaluation of a school-based intervention to increase physical activity and reduce bullying. Health Promot Pract. 2009;10:394401.
  • 36
    Hahn R, Crosby A, Moscicki E, Stone G, Dahlberg L. Effectiveness of universal school-based programs to prevent violent and aggressive behavior—a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33:S114S129.
  • 37
    Hahn R, Faqua-Whitley D, Werthington H, et al. The effectiveness of universal school-based programs for the prevention of violence and aggressive behavior—a report on recommendation of the task force on community preventive services. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56:11.
  • 38
    Mytton J, DiGuiseppi C, Gough D, Taylor R, Logan S. School-based secondary prevention programmes for preventing violence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; 3: CD004606. Available at: Accessed July 24, 2008.
  • 39
    National Institutes of Health. NIH State-of-Science Conference Statement on preventing violence and related health-risking social behaviors in adolescents. NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 2004;21:134.
  • 40
    Wilson SJ, Lipsey MW. School-based interventions for aggressive disruptive behavior—update of a meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33:S130S143.