The third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, including development of the sample frame, data collection, and data analysis, was funded by the USDA Food and Nutrition Service (contract nos. 43-3198-3-3716, 43-3198-4-0060, and AG-3198-D-05-0071). The study design was partly funded by the USDA Economic Research Service. Funding for secondary data analyses was provided by General Mills, Inc., Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN. The authors express appreciation to the school districts, schools, students, and parents who provided information for this study.
Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption and the School Breakfast Program: Relationship to Nutrient Intake and Weight
Article first published online: 18 DEC 2012
© 2013, American School Health Association
Journal of School Health
Volume 83, Issue 1, pages 28–35, January 2013
How to Cite
Affenito, S. G., Thompson, D., Dorazio, A., Albertson, A. M., Loew, A. and Holschuh, N. M. (2013), Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption and the School Breakfast Program: Relationship to Nutrient Intake and Weight. Journal of School Health, 83: 28–35. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2012.00744.x
- Issue published online: 18 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 18 DEC 2012
- Received on June 9, 2011 Accepted on February 10, 2012
- ready-to-eat cereal;
- nutrient intake;
- body mass index (BMI);
- third School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-III);
- School Breakfast Program (SBP)
BACKGROUND: Children in the United States exhibit high rates of nutrient inadequacy and overweight/obesity; other international studies report similar associations. The School Breakfast Program (SBP) may help alleviate these conditions for youth in the United States. This research examined the association of ready-to-eat (RTE) breakfast cereal consumption with students' (SBP participants and nonparticipants) dietary nutrient intake and weight status.
METHODS: Data were from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-III), conducted in 2004-2005. Analyses included all 2298 SNDA-III participants (ages 5-18 years), who completed a dietary recall and whose parents completed an interview. Students were categorized as skipping versus eating breakfast; students eating breakfast were categorized by SBP participation (SBP participant vs nonparticipant) and breakfast type (with vs without RTE cereal). Analyses estimated the association of these categorizations with total daily nutrient intake and weight-related measures, after adjusting for covariates.
RESULTS: RTE cereal breakfast consumers (regardless of SBP participation) had greater intake of vitamin A, iron, and whole grain, compared with noncereal breakfast eaters. Breakfast consumers (regardless of SBP participation and type) had greater intake of vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, dietary fiber, and whole grain, relative to breakfast skippers.
CONCLUSIONS: The SBP increases opportunity for improved nutrient intake and healthier body weight through breakfast consumption, especially whole grain RTE cereals, as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines 2010.