SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Rickes EL, Brink NG, Koniusey FR et al. Crystalline vitamin B12. Science 1948; 107: 3967.
  • 2
    Smith EL, Parker FJ. Purification of anti-pernicious anaemia factor. Biochem J 1948; 43: viiiix.
  • 3
    Australian Government Department of Health & Ageing, National Health & Medical Research Council, New Zealand Minister of Health. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. Canberra: NHMRC, 2005.
  • 4
    Food Standards Agency & Institute of Food Research. McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 6th summary edn. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002.
  • 5
    Metz J. Cobalamin deficiency and the pathogenesis of nervous system disease. Annu Rev Nutr 1992; 12: 5979.
  • 6
    Scott JM, Wilson P, Dunn JJ, Weir DG. Pathogenesis of subacute combined degeneration: a result of methyl group deficiency. Lancet 1981; 2: 3347.
  • 7
    Carmel R. Cobalamin (vitamin B12). In: ShilsME, ShikeM, RossAC, CaballeroB, CousinsRJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2006; 48297.
  • 8
    Sauberlich HE. Laboratory Tests for the Assessment of Nutritional Status, 2nd edn. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999; 14049.
  • 9
    Gibson RS. Principles of Nutritional Assessment, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • 10
    Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hansen SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
  • 11
    Higginbottom MC, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL. A syndrome of methylmalonic aciduria, homocysteine, megaloblastic anemia and neurologic abnormalities in a vitamin B12 deficient breast-fed infant of a strict vegetarian. N Engl J Med 1978; 299: 31723.
  • 12
    Wighton MC, Manson JI, Speed I, Robertson E, Chapman E. Brain damage in infancy and dietary vitamin B12 deficiency. Med J Aust 1979; 2: 13.
  • 13
    Rendle-Short J, Tiernan JR, Hawgood S. Vegan mothers with vitamin B12 deficiency. Med J Aust 1979; 2: 483.
  • 14
    Von Schenck U, Bender-Götze C, Koletzko B. Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy. Arch Dis Child 1997; 77: 1379.
  • 15
    Bates CJ, Schneeder J, Mishra G, Prentice A, Mansoor MA. Relationship between methyl-malonic acid, homocysteine, vitamin B12 intake and status and socio-economic indices, in a subset of participants in the British Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57:34957.
  • 16
    Stabler SP, Lindenbaum J, Allen RH. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly: current dilemmas. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 7419.
  • 17
    Van Asselt DZB, De Groot LCPGM, Van Staveren WA et al. Role of cobalamin intake and atrophic gastritis in mild cobalamin deficiency in older Dutch subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 32834.
  • 18
    Elia M. Oral or parenteral therapy for B12 deficiency. Lancet 1990; 357: 17212.
  • 19
    Blundell EL, Matthews JH, Alle SM, Middleton AM, Morris JE, Wickramasinghe SN. Importance of low serum vitamin B12 and red cell folate concentrations in elderly hospital inpatients. J Clin Pathol 1985; 38: 117984.
  • 20
    Tucker KL, Rich S, Rosenburg I et al. Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations relate to intake source in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 51422.
  • 21
    Clarke R, Smith AD, Jobst KA, Refsum H, Sultan L, Ueland PM. Folate, vitamin B12 and serum total homocysteine levels in confirmed Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1998; 55: 144955.
  • 22
    Duthie SJ, Whalley LJ, Collins AR, Leaper S, Berger K, Deary IJ. Homocysteine, B vitamin status and cognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75: 90813.
  • 23
    Seshadri S, Beiser A, Selhub J et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 47683.
  • 24
    Wright CB, Lee HS, Paik MC, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Sacco RL. Total homocysteine and cognition in a tri-ethnic cohort: the Northern Manhattan Study. Neurology 2004; 63: 25460.
  • 25
    Mooijaart SP, Gussekloo J, Frölich M et al. Homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid and the risk of cognitive decline in old age: the Leiden 85-plus study. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: 86671.
  • 26
    Ravaglia G, Forti P, Maioli F et al. Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: 63643.
  • 27
    Tucker KL, Qiao N, Scott T, Rosenberg I, Spiro A. High homocysteine and low B vitamins predict cognitive decline in aging men: the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: 62735.
  • 28
    Haan MN, Miller JW, Aiello AE et al. Homocysteine, B vitamins and the incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 51117.
  • 29
    Stott DJ, MacIntosh G, Lowe GD et al. Randomised controlled trial of homocysteine-lowering vitamin treatment in elderly patients with vascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: 132026.
  • 30
    Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischaemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction and death; the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomised controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 56575.
  • 31
    McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Knight RG, Mann JI, Williams SM. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 276472.
  • 32
    Durga J, Van Boxtel MPJ, Schouten EG et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 369: 20816.
  • 33
    Clarke R. Homocysteine, B vitamins and the risk of dementia. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 32930.
  • 34
    Truswell AS. Could a general increase in folate intake mask or accelerate the development of neurological disease due to vitamin B12 deficiency? In: Report of the Expert Panel on Folate Fortification, Appendix 4. Canberra: NHMRC, 1995; 437.
  • 35
    Morris MS, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J. Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to anaemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 193200.
  • 36
    Smith AD. Folic acid fortification: the good, the bad and the puzzle of vitamin B12. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 35.
  • 37
    CSIRO Division of Human Nutrition. Results from the CSIRO Australian Food & Nutrition Surveys 1988 and 1993. Adelaide: CSIRO, 1996.
  • 38
    CSIRO Division of Human Nutrition. Results from the 1985 and 1990 Victorian Nutrition Surveys. Adelaide: CSIRO, 1993.
  • 39
    Mann NJ, Li D, Sinclair AJ et al. The effect of diet on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy male subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53: 8959.
  • 40
    Flood V, Smith WT, Webb KL, Rochtchina E, Anderson VE, Mitchell P. Prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in an older Australia population. Aust N Z J Public Health 2006; 30: 3841.
  • 41
    Pfeiffer CM, Carrdill SP, Gunter EW, Osterloh J, Sampson EJ. Biochemical indicators of B status in the US population after folic acid fortification: results from the National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2000. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: 42250.
  • 42
    Flood V, Mitchell P. Folate and vitamin B12 in older Australians. Med J Aust 2007; 186: 3212.
  • 43
    Green TJ, Venn BJ, Skeaff CM, Williams SM. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations and atrophic gastritis in older New Zealanders. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59: 20510.
  • 44
    Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamnb12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.
  • 45
    Blacher J, Czernichow S, Raphael M et al. Very low oral doses of vitamin B12 increase serum concentrations in elderly subjects with food-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption. J Nutr 2007; 137: 3738.
  • 46
    Carmel R. Cobalamin, the stomach and aging. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 75059.
  • 47
    Muthayya S, Kurpad AV, Duggan CP et al. Low maternal vitamin B12 status is associated with intrauterine growth retardation in urban South Indians. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006; 60: 791801.