• 1
    Carroll KK. Experimental evidence of dietary factors and hormone dependent cancers. Cancer Res 1975; 35: 3374.
  • 2
    Sandhu MS, White IE, McPherson K. Systematic review of the prospective cohort studies on meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analytical approach. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10: 43946.
  • 3
    Norat T, Lukanova A, Ferrari P, Riboli E. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: dose–response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer 2002; 98: 24156.
  • 4
    Larsson SC, Wolk A. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cancer 2006; 119: 265764.
  • 5
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ et al. Intake of fat, meat and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 239097.
  • 6
    Sellers TA, Bazyk AE, Bostick RM et al. Diet and risk of colon cancer in a large prospective study of older women: an analysis stratified on family history (Iowa, United States). Cancer Causes Control 1998; 9: 35767.
  • 7
    Kato I, Akhmedkhanov A, Koenig K et al. Prospective study of diet and female colorectal cancer: the New York University Women's Health Study. Nutr Cancer 1997; 28: 27681.
  • 8
    Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA et al. Relation of meat, fat and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 166472.
  • 9
    Singh PN, Fraser GE. Dietary risk factors for colon cancer in a low-risk population. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148: 76174.
  • 10
    Thun MJ, Calle EE, Namboodiri MM et al. Risk factors for fatal colon cancer in a large prospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1992; 74: 30717.
  • 11
    Wei EK, Giovannucci E, Rosner B, Fuchs CS, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Comparison of risk factors for colon and rectal cancer. Int J Cancer 2004; 108: 43342.
  • 12
    Bostick RM, Potter JD, Kushi LH et al. Sugar, meat, and fat intake, and non-dietary risk factors for colon cancer incidence in Iowa women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1994; 5: 3852.
  • 13
    Chen J, Stampfer MJ, Hough HL et al. A prospective study of N-acetyltransferase genotype, red meat intake, and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 1998; 58: 330711.
  • 14
    Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Chow WH et al. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in a prospective study among US white men. Int J Cancer 1998; 77: 54953.
  • 15
    Pietinen P, Malila N, Virtanen M et al. Diet and risk of colorectal cancer in a cohort of Finnish men. Cancer Causes Control 1999; 10: 38796.
  • 16
    Jarvinen R, Knekt P, Hakulinen T, Riffanen H, Heliovaara M. Dietary fat, cholesterol and colorectal cancer in a prospective study. Br J Cancer 2001; 85: 35761.
  • 17
    Tiemersma EW, Kampman E, Bueno de Mesquita HB et al. Meat consumption, cigarette smoking, and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of colorectal cancer: results from a Dutch prospective study. Cancer Causes Control 2002; 13: 38393.
  • 18
    Flood A, Velie EM, Sinha R et al. Meat, fat, and their subtypes as risk factors for colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of women. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 158: 5968.
  • 19
    English DR, MacInnis RJ, Hodge AM, Hopper JL, Haydon AM, Giles GG. Red meat, chicken, and fish consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13: 150914.
  • 20
    Larsson SC, Rafter J, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Red meat consumption and risk of cancers of the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum: the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Int J Cancer 2005; 13: 82934.
  • 21
    Chao A, Thun MJ, Connell CJ et al. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. J Am Med Assoc 2005; 293: 17282.
  • 22
    Norat T, Bingham S, Ferrari P et al. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97: 90616.
  • 23
    Hirayama T. A large-scale cohort study on the relationship between diet and selected cancers of digestive organs. In: BruceWR, CorreaP, LipkinM, TannenbaumSR, WilkinsTD, eds. Gastrointestinal, Cancer: Endogenous Factors. Banbury Report 7. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1981; 40926.
  • 24
    Phillips RL, Snowdon DA. Dietary relationships with fatal colorectal cancer among Seventh Day Adventists. J Natl Cancer Inst 1985; 74: 30717.
  • 25
    Heilbrun LK, Normura A, Hankin JH, Stemmerman GN. Diet and colorectal cancer with special reference to fiber intake. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 16.
  • 26
    Jensen MCJF, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Buzina R et al. Dietary fiber and plant foods in relation to colorectal cancer mortality: the Seven Countries Study. Int J Cancer 1999; 81: 1749.
  • 27
    Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M et al. Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76 000 men and women in five prospective studies. Public Health Nutr 1998; 1: 3341.
  • 28
    Cho E, Smith-Warner SA for the Pooling Project of Diet and Cancer investigators. Meat and fat intake and colorectal cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 2004; 45: 113.
  • 29
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) & Australasian Association of Cancer Registries (AACR). Cancer in Australia 2001. AIHW cat. no. CAN 23. (Cancer Series no. 28). Canberra: AIHW, 2004.
  • 30
    Bjeldanes LF, Morris MM, Felton JS et al. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein rich foods of the American diet. Food Chem 1982; 20: 35763.
  • 31
    Felton JS, Fultz E, Dolbeare FA, Knize MG. Effect of microwave pre-treatment on heterocyclic aromatic amine mutagens/carcinogens in fried beef patties. Food Chem Toxicol 1994; 32: 897903.
  • 32
    Thomson BM, Lake RJ. Heterocyclic Amine Formation in Cooked Meat and Implications for New Zealanders. A Report for the Ministry of Health/Public Health Commission. Christchurch: Christchurch Science Centre, 1995.
  • 33
    Skog K, Jagerstadt M, Laser-Reutersward A. Inhibitory effect of carbohydrates on the formation of mutagens in fried beef patties. Food Chem Toxicol 1992; 30: 6818.
  • 34
    Salmon CP, Knize MG, Felton JS. Effects of marinating on heterocyclic amine carcinogen formation in grilled chicken. Food Chem Toxicol 1997; 35: 43341.
  • 35
    Layton DW, Bogen KT, Knize MG, Hatch FT, Johnson VM, Felton JS. Cancer risk of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods: an analysis and implications for research. Carcinogenesis 1995; 16: 3952.
  • 36
    Hill AB. The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc R Soc Med 1965; 58: 295.
  • 37
    Wilson CL, Safe S. Mechanisms of ligand induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated biochemical and toxicological responses. Toxicol Pathol 1998; 26: 65771.
  • 38
    Quadri SA, Quadri AN, Hahn ME, Mann KK, Sherr DH. The bioflavonoid galangin blocks AhR activation and PAH-induced pre-B cell apoptosis. Mol Pharmacol 2000; 58: 51525.
  • 39
    Lijinsky W, Shubik P. Benzo (a) pyrene and other polynuclear hydrocarbons in charcoal-broiled meat. Science 1965; 145: 535.
  • 40
    Lijinsky W, Shubik P. Polynuclear hydrocarbon carcinogens in cooked meat and smoked foods. Ind Med Surg 1965; 34:1524.
  • 41
    Dennis MJ, Massey RC, McWeeny DJ, Knowles ME, Watson D. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in UK total diets. Food Chem Toxicol 1983; 21: 56974.
  • 42
    Scientific Committee on Food, European Commission, Health And Consumer Protection Directorate-General. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons—Occurrence in Foods, Dietary Exposure and Health Effects. (Accessed June 10, 2007), 2002.
  • 43
    Larsson BK. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked fish. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 1982; 174: 1017.
  • 44
    IPCS. Selected Non-heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Environmental Health Criteria 202. Geneva: International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, 1998.
  • 45
    IARC. Tobacco Smoking. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Vol. 38. Lyon:International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, 1986.
  • 46
    Kazerouni NJ, Sinha R, Che-Han Hsu Greenberg A, Rothman N. Analysis of 200 food items for benzo[α]pyrene and estimation of its intake in an epidemiologic study. Food Chem Toxicol 2001; 39: 42336.
  • 47
    Forman D. Dietary exposure to N-nitroso compounds and the risk of human cancer. Cancer Surv 1987; 6: 71938.
  • 48
    Tricker AR, Preussmann R. Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the diet: occurrence, formation, mechanisms and carcinogenic potential. Mutat Res 1991; 259: 27789.
  • 49
    Scanlan RA. Formation and occurrence of nitrosamines in food. Cancer Res 1983; 43 (Suppl.): 243540S.
  • 50
    Hotchkiss JH. Preformed N-nitroso compounds in foods and beverages. Cancer Surv 1989; 8: 295321.
  • 51
    Clinton SK, Bostwick DG, Olson LM, Mangian HJ, Visek WJ. Effects of ammonium acetate and sodium cholate on N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced colon carcinogenesis of rats. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 30359.
  • 52
    Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Dich J, Hakulinens T. Risk of colorectal cancer and other gastro-intestinal cancers after exposure to nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds: a follow-up study. Int J Cancer 1999; 80: 8526.
  • 53
    Hughes R, Cross AJ, Pollock JRA, Bingham S. Dose-dependent effect of dietary meat on endogenous colonic N-nitrosation. Carcinogenesis 2001; 22: 199202.
  • 54
    Cross AJ, Pollock JRA, Bingham SA. Haem, not protein or inorganic iron, is responsible for endogenous intestinal N-nitrosation arising from red meat. Cancer Res 2003; 63: 235860.
  • 55
    Lewin MH, Bailey N, Bandaletova T et al. Red meat enhances the colonic formation of the DNA adduct O6-carboxymethyl guanine: implications for colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Res 2006; 66: 185965.