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Keywords:

  • biomolecular analysis;
  • chirality;
  • circular dichroism;
  • FDCD;
  • FTIR-VCD;
  • HPLC-CD;
  • MCD;
  • MVCD;
  • nanostructural analysis;
  • NIR-CD;
  • SRCD;
  • stopped-flow CD;
  • VCD;
  • XMCD

This paper reviews the best known techniques using circular dichroism spectroscopy such as conventional circular dichroism (i.e. electronic circular dichroism), magnetic circular dichroisms (magnetic vibrational circular dichroism, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism), fluorescence detected circular dichroism, near-infrared circular dichroism, vibrational circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared circular dichroism, high pressure liquid chromatography circular dichroism, stopped-flow circular dichroism, and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Also, we have described here the most important applications of circular dichroism spectroscopy in structural biochemistry and nanoscience.