• ammonia-oxidizing bacteria;
  • compost;
  • nitrification;
  • organic matter;
  • thermophilic


Thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the potential to reduce ammonium emissions from commercial-scale animal waste composting operations. Two new media have been designed to culture and enumerate thermophilic AOB species. C-1 medium was designed to reflect compost composition. C-2 medium and CQ-2 medium were modified synthetic organic wastewater for the cultivation and enumeration of AOB, respectively. These new media have several advantages over the conventional medium. C-2 medium is effective for nitrification at 50°C, and C-1 and C-2 media support reasonable growth of thermophilic AOB. Furthermore, C-1 and CQ-2 media allow enumeration of thermophilic AOB during the composting process. This is the first report of the successful cultivation and enumeration of thermophilic AOB in compost. These results suggest the possibility of isolation and manipulation of novel thermophilic AOB species for environmental bioremediation.