To better understand the behavior of metals in soil–plant systems, their physicochemical forms in rhizosphere soil should be elucidated. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a soil solution influences the mobility and bioavailability of metals in soil. The present study examined the effects of plant growth on DOM–metal complexes in a rhizosphere soil solution using size exclusion chromatography combined with an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer system (SEC–ICP-MS) and an ultrafiltration technique. Humus-rich volcanic ash soil from the surface of an agricultural field was used in a pot cultivation experiment. Brassica rapa nothovar. was cultivated in a pot in which rhizosphere soil (R) was separated by a nylon net screen from non-rhizosphere soil (NR). Soil solutions were collected using a high-speed centrifugation method 3 weeks after sowing and analyzed using SEC–ICP-MS. Some peaks of DOM with a high molecular size were detected in the ultraviolet-absorbing chromatograph (280 nm) of the soil solution samples. Their concentrations were much higher in the R solution than in the NR solution. Metals including Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Y, La and U were detected at the ultraviolet peak positions of the DOM. The ultrafiltration experiment showed that the size distributions of the organic materials to which the metals were combined differed between the R and NR soil solutions. These results suggest that plant growth enhanced the dissolution of metals adsorbed with organic matter from the solid phase in rhizosphere soil.