- 1
Lopes S.M.R., Bernardo L.F.A., and Costa R.J.T., “Reinforced Concrete Membranes Under Shear. General Behaviour,” *Experimental Techniques* (2012).

- 2
Bernardo L.F.A., and Lopes S.M.R., “Behaviour of Concrete Beams under Torsion—NSC Plain and Hollow Beams,” Materials and Structures, RILEM 41(6): 1143–1167 (2008). - 3
Lopes S.M.R., and Bernardo L.F.A., “Twist Behavior of High-Strength Concrete Hollow Beams—Formation of Plastic Hinges Along the Length,” Engineering Structures 31(1): 138–149 (2009). - 4
Bernardo L.F.A., and Lopes S.M.R., “Torsion in HSC Hollow Beams: Strength and Ductility Analysis,” ACI Structural Journal 106(1): 39–48 (2009). - 5
Bernardo L.F.A., and Lopes S.M.R., “High-Strength Concrete Hollow Beams Strengthened with External Transversal Steel Reinforcement Under Torsion,” Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, Taylor and Francis 17(3): 330–339 (2011). - 6
Bernardo L.F.A., and Lopes S.M.R., “Theoretical Behavior of HSC Beams Under Torsion,” Engineering Structures 33(12): 3702–3714 (2011). - 7
ASCE-ACI Committee 445 on Shear and Torsion, Recent Approaches to Shear Design of Structural Concrete. Journal of Structural Engineering 124(12): 1375–1417 (1998). - 8
Kotsovos G.M., Cotsovos D.M., Kotsovos M.D., and Kounadis A.N., “Seismic Behaviour of RC Walls: An Attempt to Reduce Reinforcement Congestion,” Magazine of Concrete Research 63(4): 235–246 (2011). - 9
Pimanmas A., “Web Crushing Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Pre-existing Cracks,” Magazine of Concrete Research 62( 9): 665–678 (2010). - 10
Sahoo D.K., Singh B., and Bhargava P., “Effect of Inclination on the Strength of Struts,” Magazine of Concrete Research 63(2): 111–117 (2010). - 11
Lopes S.M.R., Carmo R.N.F., and Bernardo L.F.A., “Plastic Rotation Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams”, *Keynote Paper, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Concrete Future*. Yantai, China, 2008.

- 12
Bhalla S., Tuli S., and Arora R., “Defect Detection in Concrete Structures Using Thermal Imaging Techniques,” Experimental Techniques 35: 39–43 (2011). - 13
Godinho L., Tadeu A., and Branco, F.G., “Dynamic Analysis of Submerged Fluid-Filled Pipelines Subjected to a Point Pressure Load,” Journal of Sound and Vibration 271(1–2): 257–277 (2004). - 14
Malcolm K.L., and Honggang C., Combining multiple NDT methods to improve testing effectiveness, Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.01.011 [accessed 8 July 2011]. - 15
Parivallal S., Ravisankar K., Nagamani K., and Kesavan K., “Core-Drilling Technique for In-Situ Stress Evaluation in Concrete Structures,” Experimental Techniques 35: 29–34 (2011). - 16
Hognestad E., What Do We Know About Diagonal Tension and Web Reinforcement in Concrete? Circular Series, 64, University of Illinois, Engineering Exp. Station, I (1952).

- 17
Thorenfeldt E., Tomasziewicz A., and Jensen J.J., Mechanical Properties of HSC and Application in Design. *Proceedings, Symposium on Utilization of High-Strength Concrete*, Stavanger, Norway, pp. 149–159 (1987).

- 18
Zhang L.X., and Hsu T.T.C., “Behaviour and Analysis of 100 MPa Concrete Membrane Elements,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE 124(1): 24–34 (1998). - 19
Ferreira M.C.P., *Efeito da Variabilidade Espacial da Acção Sísmica em Pontes Atirantadas (Seismic Spatial Variability Effect on Cable Stayed Bridges)*, Master Thesis, University of Coimbra (in Portuguese) (2004).

- 20
Vecchio F.J., and Collins M.P., “The Modified Compression-Field Theory for Reinforced Concrete Elements Subjected to Shear,” Journal of ACI, 83(2), 219–231 (1986). - 21
Mikame A., Uchida K., and Noguchi H., A Study of Compressive Deterioration of Cracked Concrete. Proc*. Int. Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete*, Columbia Univ., New York, (1991).

- 22
Belarbi A., and Hsu T.C., Constitutive Laws of Softened Concrete in Biaxial Tension-Compression. Research Report UHCEE 91-2, Univ. of Houston, Texas (1991).

- 23
Hsu T.T.C., Unified Theory of Reinforced Concrete, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1993).

- 24
Vecchio F.J., Collins M.P., and Aspiotis J., “High-Strength Concrete Elements Subjected to Shear,” Structural Journal of American Concrete Institute 91(4): 423–433 (1994). - 25
Vecchio F.J., “Disturbed Stress Field Model for Reinforced Concrete: Formulation,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE 126(9): 1070–1077 (2000). - 26
CEN EN 1992-1-1. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures—Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings (2004).

- 27
CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, Comité Euro-International du Béton, Lausanne, Suisse (1990).

- 28
FIB, CEB-FIP, Structural Concrete - Textbook on Behaviour, Design and Performance, Updated Knowledge of the CEB/FIP Model Code 1990, FIB CEB-FIP Manual-Textbook, Volume 1, Lausanne (1999).

- 29
ACI Committee 318. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (*ACI* 318R-05). American Concrete Institute, Detroit (2005).

- 30
A23.3-04. Design of Concrete Structures, Canadian Standards Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (2004).1

- 31
Litewka A., Debinski J. and Mesquita A.B., “Stress–Strain Relations for Concrete Subjected to Oriented Damage”. 32nd Solid Mechanics Conference, September 1998 1–5, Zakopane, Poland, pp. 241–242.