Procedural Justice in Negotiation: Procedural Fairness, Outcome Acceptance, and Integrative Potential


  • Rebecca Hollander-Blumoff is an Associate Professor at Washington University School of Law. Address correspondence to

  • Tom R. Tyler is a University Professor at New York University in the Department of Psychology and School of Law.

  • The authors acknowledge with gratitude the support of Peggy Cooper Davis, the Lawyering Program at New York University, Oscar Chase, Samuel Estreicher, the Institute of Judicial Administration at New York University, and Washington University School of Law.


Two correlational studies test the hypothesis that procedural justice, or fairness of process, plays a role in acceptance of agreements reached through bilateral negotiation. Both studies test the relationship between the fairness of the process used to resolve a dispute, objective monetary outcomes, subjective assessments of outcome favorability, and subjective assessments of outcome fairness. Additionally, the second study tests the hypothesis that negotiations characterized by greater procedural justice result in more potential for integrative bargaining. The results suggest that procedural justice encourages the acceptance of negotiated agreements, as well as leading to the opportunity for increased integrative bargaining.