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Keywords:

  • Disinfection;
  • wastewater;
  • sewage;
  • effluent;
  • stormwater;
  • peracetic acid;
  • ozone;
  • ultraviolet irradiation;
  • Clariflow

ABSTRACT

This paper highlights the main disinfection options available for sewage, final effluents and stormwater, and is a review of the current research programme being carried out by staff of the Water Research Centre.

Disinfection is an increasing requirement, with particular emphasis on bathing and recreational water use. Laboratory and field trials are reviewed, and a wide range of disinfectants have been tested. These include peracetic acid and the Clariflow process for crude sewage; peracetic acid, ozone and UV irradiation for final effluent; and peracetic acid for stormwater.

The efficacy of the various disinfectants is evaluated and general costs are presented. Of special interest is the potential effect of sewage strength in reducing the disinfecting properties of the chemical. It is also apparent that there are wide variations in performance between processes and host organisms.