A version of this paper was presented at the 2008 annual meetings of the Rural Sociological Society, Manchester, NH. Research support provided by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Annie E. Casey Foundation, NRS of the USDA Forest Service, CSRES of USDA, and NICHD. The authors thank Allison Churilla for her able research assistance, and the external reviewers and editor for helpful comments.
Immigrant Gateways and Hispanic Migration to New Destinations1
Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009
© 2009 by the Center for Migration Studies of New York
International Migration Review
Volume 43, Issue 3, pages 496–518, Fall 2009
How to Cite
Lichter, D. T. and Johnson, K. M. (2009), Immigrant Gateways and Hispanic Migration to New Destinations. International Migration Review, 43: 496–518. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00775.x
- Issue published online: 1 SEP 2009
- Article first published online: 1 SEP 2009
Our understanding of the underlying demographic components of population change in new Hispanic destinations is limited. In this paper, we (1) compare Hispanic migration patterns in traditional settlement areas with new growth in emerging Hispanic destinations; (2) examine the role of immigration vis-à-vis domestic migration in spurring Hispanic population redistribution; and (3) document patterns of migrant selectivity, distinguishing between in-migrants and non-migrant Hispanics at both the origin and destination. We use several recent datasets, including the 1990 and 2000 Public Use Microdata Samples (which include new regional geocodes), and the 2005 and 2006 files of the American Community Survey. Our results document the widespread dispersion of the Hispanic population over the 1990–2006 period from established Hispanic gateways into new Hispanic areas and other parts of the country. Nearly one-half of Hispanic net migration in new destinations comes from domestic gains. In contrast, both established and other Hispanic areas depend entirely on immigration, with each losing domestic migrants to high growth areas. Migrant flows also are highly differentiated by education, citizenship, and nativity. To fully understand the spatial diffusion of Hispanics requires a new appreciation of the complex interplay among immigration, internal domestic migration, and fertility.