In this article, it is argued that, although there is significant debate over the nature of Anaxagoras’ response to Parmenides, it is likely that Anaxagoras advances his physical theory in opposition to Parmenides’ Numerical Monism. It is unlikely that Anaxagoras aims to develop a theory that harmonizes with the Predicational Monism that is sometimes ascribed to Parmenides. In addition, it is argued that, although some modern scholars suggest that Anaxagoras posits nous as a planning cause, no compelling argument has yet been advanced against Plato's interpretation, according to which Anaxagoras is not a proponent of teleological explanation.