Around the world, freshwater and marine fishes face a variety of threats and many fish species and communities have disappeared in recent years. Zoos and public aquariums have an important role to play in helping to reverse this trend. Although the aim of conservation must be to protect and restore habitats in the wild, thereby saving fish communities and individual species, captive conservation activities can provide important back-up to this objective. In particular, zoos and public aquariums can play a major part in public education, the provision of holding facilities for fish and the captive breeding of some threatened species. Many zoos and public aquariums are now taking part in such activities and are becoming recognized as major contributors to the field of fish conservation.