In September 1975 Frankfurt Zoo received 1.1 7 week-old Rusty-spotted cats Prionailurus rubiginosus phillipsi from Sri Lanka. As at 31 December 1995 16.19 animals, all descended from this pair, were listed in the international studbook at eight collections (Dmoch, 1996). Between 1976 and 1994 77 Rusty-spotted cats were born in captivity and breeding data reveal that: sexual maturity is reached within the first year; mean litter size is 1–3 (n= 58); mean time of first mating is 7–8 days after introduction (n= 78); mean mating activity period is 5–7 days (n= 49); gestation period is between 67 and 71 days (mean 69 days, n= 22). Breeding ceased in 1989 at Frankfurt Zoo and in 1991 at Cincinnati, which could indicate an inbreeding depression. This paper describes the diet, growth and development, veterinary care, husbandry and behaviour of the species.