Ninety (26%) of the world's parrot species are threatened with extinction. While this figure will vary with deteriorating circumstances, taxonomic insight and assessment of new evidence, the great majority (currently 93%) of threatened parrots are forest species, most (75 species, 83%) have populations estimated at less than 10 000 mature individuals, and many (37 species, 41%) have ranges %%20 000km2. Habitat destruction (notably the loss of nest-sites), trade, hunting and introduced species are significant threats. Indonesia, Australia, Brazil, the Philippines, Colombia and Mexico support two-thirds (60 species) of all threatened parrots. Conservation of sites with sympatric threatened parrots is required, alongside research and awareness programmes that enable site and species management.