Psittacines are kept widely in captivity in zoos and private aviculture, and although 130 of the c. 360 parrot species are threatened, international stud-books are only maintained for a small number of these. Regional collection planning is well advanced in Australasia, North America and Europe with high-level co-ordinated breeding programmes and regional studbooks. A few regional studbooks are also maintained by zoos in Africa, Brazil and Japan. Within Australasia most programmes are for indigenous parrots and some are linked closely to species-recovery projects involving local wildlife agencies. In Europe and North America the majority of breeding programmes and studbooks are for exotic species of larger macaws, cockatoos and amazons. Some of these breeding programmes in zoos assist field conservation through active fundraising and participation of staff in field projects. Zoos also support conservation projects for species not maintained at their institutions. The role that private aviculture may play in conservation breeding programmes is discussed.