Growth and mortality of Black stilt or kaki



Between 1989 and 1998, 294 Black stilt or kaki Himantopus novaezelandiae chicks hatched at Twizel, South Canterbury, New Zealand. Of these, 251 (85%) were successfully reared to fledging. Eighty-four (29%) chicks were parent-hatched and 75% of these fledged. A total of 188 hand-reared chicks survived to fledging. Forty-three chicks died from a number of causes, including starvation or nutritional deficiency (21%), as a result of slow acceptance of supplementary diet, bacterial infection (14%), accidents while with parents (14%), poor parenting (9%), weak hatchlings after artificial incubation (11%), stress from sibling aggression (2%), enteritis and pneumonia. There were five deaths from unknown causes.