• animal management;
  • aquariums;
  • collection planning;
  • conservation;
  • co-operation;
  • education;
  • ethics;
  • habitats;
  • SSP;
  • zoological collections;
  • zoos

The turn of the century appears to be a good time to examine the role of zoos and aquariums, both in the past and present, and to predict what role these organizations will play in animal management and conservation in the future. In this review three main trends are considered: (1) the loss of wildlife habitats and, therefore, wildlife, (2) the increase in the number of animal-welfare and animal-rights organizations, and (3) the continued urbanization of the Earth's human population. Several predictions and positive action points are given for each trend and if these are taken on board and developed, zoos and aquariums of the future may become leaders in conservation, education and science.