• behavioural ecology;
  • behavioural opportunities;
  • environmental enrichment;
  • husbandry;
  • research;
  • welfare

Intereat and activity in the field of environmental enrichment have blossomed over the last decade, and the sophistication and utility of the concepts underlying enrichment have grown correspondingly. Combined with the enthusiasm of animal keepers, this has resulted in demonstrable improvements to the welfare of zoo animals. The next step is for enrichment to be incorporated systematically into the husbandry programmes of all zoos and aquariums, and this is beginning to happen. Detailed systematic studies utilizing large sample sizes are needed to test and refine hypotheses in order to ensure that enrichment activities continue to be effective in the future.