Welfare, husbandry and veterinary care of wild animals in captivity: changes in attitudes, progress in knowledge and techniques

Authors

  • J. K. KIRKWOOD

    1. The Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathumpstead, Hertfordshire AL4 8AN, United Kingdom
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Abstract

Since the first zoos were founded, attitudes to keeping wild animals in captivity have changed considerably. A much firmer conviction that animals have the capacity for consciousness and thus suffering, has been one factor in the growth in concern for welfare in recent decades. The pursuit of conservation goals and higher welfare standards has driven remarkable advances in the husbandry, veterinary science and care of wild animals.

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