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Keywords:

  • calcium homeostasis;
  • clinical nutrition;
  • freshwater turtles;
  • metabolic bone disease;
  • nutrition;
  • vitamin A;
  • vitamin D

This review reports on a decade of nutrition research into calcium (Ca) homeostasis in freshwater turtles, including research on non-nutritive factors that are essential for Ca homeostasis [i.e. ontogeny, environmental temperature and humidity, and ultraviolet (UV) light and photoreception]. Recommendations for future research include long-term research programmes in three specific areas: (1) photoreception, UV light and biosynthesis, (2) Ca homeostasis and vitamin and mineral supplementation, and (3) developmental indices, gut transit time (GTT) and energy requirements.