• abnormal behaviour;
  • animal welfare;
  • enclosure design;
  • India;
  • lion-tailed macaque;
  • questionnaire;
  • reproductive success;
  • zoos

A questionnaire survey was conducted to compare husbandry and management protocols for Lion-tailed macaques Macaca silenus in 42 zoos in various parts of the world. A relatively higher number of zoos outside India compared with those in India reported foraging behaviour in their individuals, whereas abnormal behaviour was rare. The reproductive success of macaques in these zoos was also significantly higher than that in Indian zoos. The results of this study suggest that group composition, enclosure design, dietary preparation and nutrition, as well as visitor–animal interaction influence the welfare and breeding success of Lion-tailed macaques in Indian zoos. Also, poor management is a problem in the Indian-zoo scenario. Hence, we emphasize the need for good zoo management through proper record-keeping, regularized behaviour monitoring and administration of environmental enrichment, and a well-established marking/tagging method to identify individual animals.