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Notes on behaviour and reproduction in captive Allobates kingsburyi (Anura: Dendrobatidae), with comments on evolution of reproductive amplexus



Behaviour, reproduction and vocalizations of captive dendrobatid frogs Allobates kingsburyi are reported for the first time. Allobates kingsburyi is diurnal. Males defended their territory aggressively using acoustic and visual signals, and physical combats. Females showed aggressive behaviours only as a sign of rejection of the ♂ during courtship or during competition for food. Calls recorded in the field were a long trill of 25·4 seconds and 96 notes per call. The courtship was complex and it could last for several days. Males emitted acoustic signals as a long-distance attractant to the ♀, and in short-distance they performed visual and tactile signals. The most conspicuous behaviour in ♂♂ was showing the vocal sac inflated in front of possible rivals or mate. Amplexus was absent, but an axillary position with no grasping was recorded. Females lay 11–39 eggs per clutch; time of development from fertilization to hatching was 19–24 days. Males guarded the clutch and transported, for up to about 3 hours, between seven and 22 tadpoles on their dorsum to the water. Tadpoles took 88–157 days from hatchling to end of metamorphosis. Novel hypotheses are proposed about trends of evolution of reproductive amplexus in dendrobatids.