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Keywords:

  • amphibian;
  • benchmark;
  • breeding;
  • water-quality parameters

Appropriate water quality is essential for maintaining and breeding amphibians in captivity. Aquatic systems that maintain water quality have been employed for many years in the aquaculture and aquarium industries. These techniques are now more commonly being utilized for amphibians. Using information from the work of the authors and published literature on amphibians and fish, benchmarks are provided for common water-quality parameters for amphibians.