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Keywords:

  • anaesthesia;
  • Baylisascaris;
  • canine distemper;
  • degenerative joint disease;
  • dental disease;
  • infectious canine hepatitis;
  • neoplasia;
  • Neorickettsia;
  • pseudorabies;
  • Ursidae

A wide variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases has been described in bears. Some viral (e.g. canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis), bacterial (e.g. salmon poisoning) and parasitic diseases (particularly skin mites and ascarid infections) are of concern. Non-infectious conditions, such as dental disease, degenerative joint disease and neoplasia, are very important in the management of captive bears. Appropriate anaesthesia is essential in both veterinary and biological interventions with bears.