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Hypocretin/orexin and energy expenditure

Authors

  • J. A. Teske,

    1.  Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2.  Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA
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  • C. J. Billington,

    1.  Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2.  Minnesota Obesity Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    3.  Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA
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  • C. M. Kotz

    1.  Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    2.  Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA
    3.  Minnesota Obesity Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
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J. A. Teske, PhD, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, GRECC (11G), One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA.
E-mail: teskeja@umn.edu

Abstract

The hypocretins or orexins are endogenous neuropeptides synthesized in discrete lateral, perifornical and dorsal hypothalamic neurones. These multi-functional neuropeptides modulate energy homeostasis, arousal, stress, reward, reproduction and cardiovascular function. This review summarizes the role of hypocretins in modulating non-sleep-related energy expenditure with specific focus on the augmentation of whole body energy expenditure as well as hypocretin-induced physical activity and sympathetic outflow. We compare the efficacy of hypocretin-1 and 2 on energy expenditure and evaluate whether the literature implicates hypocretin signalling though the hypocretin-1 and -2 receptor as having shared and or functionally specific physiological effects. Thus far data suggest that hypocretin-1 has a more robust stimulatory effect relative to hypocretin-2. Furthermore, hypocretin-1 receptor predominantly mediates behaviours known to influence energy expenditure. Further studies on the hypocretin-2 receptor are needed.

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