The wide dissemination of hip dysplasia among large dogs has led, over the years, to a variety of control programmes. Until now, the diagnostic evaluation of radiographs has been essential for any successful combat against hip dysplasia. Judging procedures differ, although generally within narrow limits. On the continent, the recommendations of the Federation Cynologique Internationale are followed to a large extent. Hip dysplasia has polygenic hereditary traits. Besides the influences of the genes, there are also environmental factors that play a role in the variability of the hip status. Breed schemes have, so far, been based on selection and the partial or total exclusion of affected dogs from breeding.
The system applied to German shepherd dogs in West Germany in the last 20 years has proved successful without imposing strict measures.