Ultrasound-guided catheter biopsy of lesions affecting the lower urinary tract was attempted in 12 dogs with mucosal lesions affecting the bladder [nine] or urethra (three). Histological biopsies were obtained by catheter biopsy in 10 dogs, enabling diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma in five, papilloma in two, prostatic carcinoma in two and chronic cystitis in one. Cytological samples alone were obtained in two dogs, one of which enabled a diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma; the other contained evidence of haemorrhage and inflammation, but squamous cell carcinoma was found in a subsequent exci-sional biopsy. Intravesicular haemorrhage after biopsy was observed ultrasonographically in two dogs. Ultrasound guidance enables accurate determination of biopsy catheter position. The size of biopsies obtained by this method may limit the accuracy of histological diagnosis.