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Six dogs had signs of pelvic limb weakness, pain and collapse as a result of occlusion of the distal aorta and/or the iliac arteries by a thrombus. Antemortem diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs, angiography and ultrasonography. Five dogs had concurrent disease that probably predisposed to thrombosis, including hyperadrenocorticism (three dogs), neoplasia and cardiac disease. Two dogs died shortly after the episode of thrombosis. Dogs that survived the acute episode received aspirin in an attempt to prevent thrombosis occurring again and all regained pelvic limb function. For dogs that survived longer than one month after the acute episode, repeat thrombosis was uncommon; hence the prognosis was related to the underlying disease. Aortic and iliac thrombosis in dogs is an uncommon condition that usually arises secondarily to a predisposing disease process; it carries a more favourable prognosis than feline aortic thromboembolism.