Rectal tubulopapillary polyps were diagnosed in eight dogs following proctoscopy and mucosal pinch biopsy. Histological examination of the pinch biopsies revealed evidence of malignant transformation in three of the cases. The remaining cases were diagnosed as benign polyps. Inflammatory changes were observed in four cases. Seven dogs were treated with piroxicam suppositories and one with oral piroxicarn. All dogs were re-examined after four to six weeks of piroxicam therapy and the extent of haematochezia, tenesmus and faecal mucus production was reduced in all cases. The owners of seven of the dogs considered the improvement in clinical signs to be good or excellent. Cases with and without evidence of inflammation responded equally well. This finding supports the hypothesis that piroxicam has an antineoplastic effect due to apoptosis and alteration in the cell cycle. Medical management with piroxicam may provide a non-invasive treatment option for dogs with rectal polyp formation in which surgical treatment is likely to be associated with complications such as incontinence, infection and wound breakdown, or where the owner declines such treatment.