This paper presents the results of a prospective study to investigate the prognostic value of clinical staging, histological grading, immunophenotype, mitotic count and average numbers of argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region counts in dogs with multicentric lymphosarcoma treated with a standard chemotherapy protocol comprising vincristine, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. Forty-nine dogs were treated according to the study protocol. Univariate and multivariate analysis with regression modelling was used to evaluate the prognostic importance of patient and tumour variables upon tumour response and relapse-free survival. Thirty-seven dogs (76 per cent) achieved a complete remission, seven (14 per cent) a partial remission and five (10 per cent) failed to respond to treatment. None of the variables examined had a statistically significant effect upon tumour response. Tumour immunophenotype was the only parameter found to have a significant influence on patient survival, the hazard ratio for T-cell versus B-cell immunophenotype was 3–99 with 95 per cent confidence interval from 1–399 to 11–372, P a 0–035.