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Glomerular disease in the dog is not only a common form of renal disease but also an important cause of chronic renal failure. The presence of immune complexes in glomerular capillary walls is a major cause of canine glomerular disease and is commonly referred to as glomerulonephritis. Leakage of plasma proteins, principally albumin, across the damaged glomerular capillary walls results in persistent proteinuria - the clinicopathological hallmark of glomerulonephritis. Recent evidence suggests that, in addition to being a marker of disease, persistent proteinuria is associated with progressive glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions and loss of additional nephrons. Perhaps the best treatment for glomerulonephritis is the identification and correction of any underlying inflammatory, immune-mediated or neoplastic disease that results in the deposition or formation of glomerular immune complexes. In cases of idiopathic glomerulonephritis, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to decrease proteinuria and potentially slow disease progression.