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Ciclosporin treatment of suspected granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis in three dogs



Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis is an idiopathic disease of the central nervous system of presumed dysimmune origin. This disorder is characterised histologically by an angiocentric inflammatory reaction involving the brain, the spinal cord, and/or the leptomeninges. To date, the standard treatment for granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis consists of immunosuppressive dosages of glucocorticoids. Ciclosporin A, a potent immunosuppressive agent that blocks the transcription of cytokine genes in activated T cells, has been proposed as a therapeutic alternative. In the present study of three dogs with suspected granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, microemulsified ciclosporin, at a dose of 10 mg/kg once daily for at least six weeks, then reducing to 5 mg/kg daily, was administered after a variable period of glucocorticoid treatment, and resulted in a complete resolution of clinical signs. Satisfactory improvement of clinical signs after ciclosporin administration took more time than after glucocorticoid administration. Six weeks after the beginning of ciclosporin treatment, clinical results were similar to those obtained with prednisolone. Adverse effects were minimal with ciclosporin, with only intermittent vomiting.