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Fragmented coronoid process in the dog is a common yet frustrating and poorly understood condition. Elbow joint incongruency, which refers to malalignment of the joint surfaces of the elbow, has been proposed as a key factor in the pathogenesis of fragmented coronoid process, and various surgical procedures have been devised to treat the proposed incongruency. However, precise characterisation of incongruency present in cases of fragmented coronoid process has not been reported consistently. In this article, the literature relating to the pathogenesis of fragmented coronoid process, the role of incongruency and its implications are reviewed.