Angiostrongylosis was diagnosed in a dog presenting with haemothorax on the basis of detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum first-stage larvae both in the pleural effusion and in faeces. A one-year-old, male, mixed-breed dog was presented with fever, depression and persistent cough of one month’s duration. Clinical examination revealed temperature of 39·5°C, loud bronchovesicular sounds on thoracic auscultation and attenuated cardiac sounds. Thoracic radiographs showed a moderate bilateral pleural effusion and a diffuse interstitial pulmonary pattern, with an alveolar pattern in one lobe. Routine haematology revealed anaemia and leucocytosis with eosinophilia, basophilia and thrombocytopenia. Coagulation assays showed a consumptive coagulopathy resembling disseminated intravascular coagulation. The relationship between haemothorax and the presence of A vasorum larvae in the pleural effusion is discussed. The dog was successfully treated with fenbendazole until negative for larvae on faecal examination. This case report indicates that A vasorum infection should be considered as a possible aetiological cause of haemothorax in dogs.