Canine dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: assessment of myocardial function and clinical outcome

Authors

  • J. Loureiro,

    1. Small Animal Teaching Hospital, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston, Wirral CH64 7TE
      *The Scarsdale Veterinary Hospital, Derby, UK 45/47 Kedleston Road, Derby DE221FN
      †Nantwich Veterinary Hospital, Crewe Road End, Nantwich, Cheshire CW5 5SF
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  • S. Smith,

    1. Small Animal Teaching Hospital, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston, Wirral CH64 7TE
      *The Scarsdale Veterinary Hospital, Derby, UK 45/47 Kedleston Road, Derby DE221FN
      †Nantwich Veterinary Hospital, Crewe Road End, Nantwich, Cheshire CW5 5SF
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  • S. Fonfara,

    1. Small Animal Teaching Hospital, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston, Wirral CH64 7TE
      *The Scarsdale Veterinary Hospital, Derby, UK 45/47 Kedleston Road, Derby DE221FN
      †Nantwich Veterinary Hospital, Crewe Road End, Nantwich, Cheshire CW5 5SF
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  • S. Swift,

    1. Small Animal Teaching Hospital, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston, Wirral CH64 7TE
      *The Scarsdale Veterinary Hospital, Derby, UK 45/47 Kedleston Road, Derby DE221FN
      †Nantwich Veterinary Hospital, Crewe Road End, Nantwich, Cheshire CW5 5SF
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  • R. James,

    1. Small Animal Teaching Hospital, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston, Wirral CH64 7TE
      *The Scarsdale Veterinary Hospital, Derby, UK 45/47 Kedleston Road, Derby DE221FN
      †Nantwich Veterinary Hospital, Crewe Road End, Nantwich, Cheshire CW5 5SF
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  • J. Dukes-McEwan

    1. Small Animal Teaching Hospital, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston, Wirral CH64 7TE
      *The Scarsdale Veterinary Hospital, Derby, UK 45/47 Kedleston Road, Derby DE221FN
      †Nantwich Veterinary Hospital, Crewe Road End, Nantwich, Cheshire CW5 5SF
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Abstract

Objective: The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate echocardiographic findings and myocardial function including pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging in dogs with naturally occurring dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and (ii) to investigate the clinical outcome and response to therapy in these dogs.

Methods: Two cases were retrospectively reviewed and three cases were prospectively evaluated including clinical findings, diagnostic test results (including standard Doppler echocardiography and pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging), response to treatment and outcome. The two retrospective cases received no treatment. Other cases were treated with a β-blocker.

Results: All dogs had a variable intensity left apical systolic murmur. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and scimitar-shaped left ventricular outflow tract Doppler flow profile were present in all cases. Pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging interrogation of the interventricular septum revealed E′/A′ reversal in all but one patient. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and total resolution of the dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction were observed in all cases.

Clinical Significance: Young dogs are affected with a possible terrier breed predisposition. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction may be distinguished from canine hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as progressive resolution of echocardiographic abnormalities was documented. Pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging abnormalities provide further evidence for significant diastolic dysfunction associated with the hypertrophy.

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