Idiopathic granulomatous and necrotising inflammatory disorders of the canine central nervous system: a review and future perspectives

Authors

  • Lauren R. Talarico,

    1. Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 501 DW Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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  • Scott J. Schatzberg

    1. Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 501 DW Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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Abstract

Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, necrotizing meningoencephalitis, and necrotizing leukoencephalitis are common inflammatory conditions of the canine central nervous system. Although each disease has unique histopathological features, these canine disorders collectively seem to be aberrant immune responses directed against the central nervous system. A review of the neurological signs and general neurodiagnostic approach to canine meningoencephalitis is followed by an overview of the specific clinical and neuropathological features of granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, necrotizing meningoencephalitis, and necrotizing leukoencephalitis. The aetiopathogenesis of each disorder is explored including potential genetic, immunological, and environmental factors along with the current and prospective immunomodulatory therapies for meningoencephalitis.

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