A four-year-old male neutered Australian shepherd dog was diagnosed with a thymoma and concurrent mature T cell lymphocytosis. The lymphocytosis consisted of a mixed population of T cells expressing either CD4 or CD8 or neither marker, and the result of polymerase chain reaction for antigen receptor rearrangement was negative. The peripheral lymphocytosis resolved within 24 hours following thoracotomy and thymectomy. Similar cases have been reported in man, but the aetiology of the increased circulating lymphocytes remains unclear. Although peripheral lymphocytosis is an uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome associated with thymomas, thymoma should be considered as a differential when the increased lymphocytes consist of a mixed population of T cells.