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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the two canine haemoplasma species, Mycoplasma haemocanis and “Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum,” are commonly associated with immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) in UK dogs.

Methods: Three groups of dogs were recruited to the study: anaemic dogs with primary IMHA (n=37); anaemic dogs not meeting the inclusion criteria for primary IMHA (n=77) and non-anaemic dogs (n=113). DNA was extracted from 100 μl of blood and subjected to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for both species of Mycoplasma. Each assay incorporated co-amplification of canine glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as an endogenous internal control.

Results: Canine GAPDH was successfully amplified by qPCR from all 227 canine blood samples but none contained M. haemocanis or “Candidatus M. haematoparvum” DNA.

Clinical Significance: Haemoplasma infection is uncommon in dogs in the UK and no evidence was found that these organisms act as triggers for IMHA.